Integration of Ceph and Kubernetes

This blog is about the integration of ceph with kubernetes. Kubernetes needs persistent storage for application to to maintain the data even after pod fails or deleted. This storage may be storage devices attached to cluster shared by NFS, storage solutions provided by cloud providers. We are considering Ceph here. Before dive into actual process of integration, lets see some basic like what ceph, kubernetes is.

What is Kubernetes

Kubernetes is an open source orchestration tool developed by Google for managing microservices or containerized applications across a distributed cluster of nodes. Kubernetes provides highly resilient infrastructure with zero downtime deployment capabilities, automatic rollback, scaling, and self-healing of containers (which consists of auto-placement, auto-restart, auto-replication , and scaling of containers on the basis of CPU usage).

The main objective of Kubernetes is to hide the complexity of managing a fleet of containers by providing REST APIs for the required functionalities. Kubernetes is portable in nature, meaning it can run on various public or private cloud platforms such as AWS, Azure, OpenStack, or Apache Mesos. It can also run on bare metal machines.

What is Ceph?

Ceph is opensource software defined storage platform. Ceph provides reliable and clustered storage solution. It is highly scalable to exabytelevel, operates without single point of failure and it is free. It also provides combined interface for block, object and file-level storage.

Prerequisites

How to Do it ?

On Ceph admin

Lets see our ceph cluster up and running by ceph -s comamnd. Now we need to create a pool and image in it for kubernetes storage where we share it with kubernetes client to use.

$ ceph -s 
$ ceph osd pool create kubernetes 100
$ ceph osd lspools
Ceph Health

Now we need image to create in kubernetes pool we just created. We are naming image “kube”. And see the information of image we created.

Image info in Kubernetes pool

For kubernetes to access the pool and images we created here on ceph cluster, needs some permission. So we provide it by copying ceph.conf and admin keyring. (Although it not advised to copy the admin keyring. For better practice keyring with some permission for desired pool is need share).

$ scp /etc/ceph/ceph.conf root@master:~
$ scp /etc/ceph/ceph.client.admin.keyring root@master:~

To make kubernetes master as ceph client we need to follow some steps:

  • Install ceph-common packages
  • Move ceph.conf and admin keyring to the /etc/ceph/ directory Now we can run ceph commands on kubernetes master. Moving further, we need to map our rbd image here. First enable the rbdmap service
$ systemctl enable rbdmap 
$ rbd map kube -p kubernetes $ rbd showmapped

Note: If the rbdmap enabling fails, try removing rbdmap file from /etc/ceph directory. Depending upon which ceph version and OS you are using, this mapping is not done simply running these commands. You need to load rbd modules into kernel by modeprobe command. Also disable some feature of rbd by rbd feature disable command.

Connecting Ceph and kubernetes

Kubernetes to use ceph storage as backend, kubernetes needs to talk with ceph(not in general) via external storage plugin as this provision is not include in official kube-control-manager image. So we need either to customize the kube-control-manager image or use plugin- rbd-provisioner. In this blog, we are using external plugin. Lets create rbd-provisioner in kube-system namespace with RBAC. Before creating deployment check if rbd-provisioner has same image of ceph version as yours by running following command:

$ docker pull quay.io/external_storage/rbd-provisioner:latest       $ docker history quay.io/external_storage/rbd-provisioner:latest | grep CEPH_VERSION

Now create deployment, save following in rbd-provisioner.yml.

kind: ClusterRole
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
name: rbd-provisioner
rules:
- apiGroups: [""]
resources: ["persistentvolumes"]
verbs: ["get", "list", "watch", "create", "delete"]
- apiGroups: [""]
resources: ["persistentvolumeclaims"]
verbs: ["get", "list", "watch", "update"]
- apiGroups: ["storage.k8s.io"]
resources: ["storageclasses"]
verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]
- apiGroups: [""]
resources: ["events"]
verbs: ["create", "update", "patch"]
- apiGroups: [""]
resources: ["services"]
resourceNames: ["kube-dns","coredns"]
verbs: ["list", "get"]
- apiGroups: [""]
resources: ["endpoints"]
verbs: ["get", "list", "watch", "create", "update", "patch"]
---
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
name: rbd-provisioner
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
name: rbd-provisioner
namespace: kube-system
roleRef:
kind: ClusterRole
name: rbd-provisioner
apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: Role
metadata:
name: rbd-provisioner
rules:
- apiGroups: [""]
resources: ["secrets"]
verbs: ["get"]
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: RoleBinding
metadata:
name: rbd-provisioner
roleRef:
apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
kind: Role
name: rbd-provisioner
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
name: rbd-provisioner
namespace: kube-system
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
name: rbd-provisioner
---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
name: rbd-provisioner
spec:
replicas: 1
selector:
matchLabels:
app: rbd-provisioner
strategy:
type: Recreate
template:
metadata:
labels:
app: rbd-provisioner
spec:
containers:
- name: rbd-provisioner
image: "quay.io/external_storage/rbd-provisioner:latest"
env:
- name: PROVISIONER_NAME
value: ceph.com/rbd
serviceAccount: rbd-provisioner

Run following command

$ kubectl create -f rbd-provisioner.yml

This will create service account RBAC, Role biding etc. Check if rbd-provisioner pod is running after few minutes by following command:

$ kubectl get pods -l app=rbd-provisioner -n kube-system

RBD volume provisioner needs admin key from Ceph to provision storage. To get the admin key from Ceph cluster use this command:

$ ceph --cluster ceph auth get-key client.admin

Now create Kubernetes secret with this key

$ kubectl create secret generic ceph-secret \
--type="kubernetes.io/rbd" \
--from-literal=key='COPY-YOUR-ADMIN-KEY-HERE' \
--namespace=kube-system

Note: If keyring other than admin also created for pool permissions, then we also need to create secret for the same. We are going to use admin keyring and admin user for creating kubernetes resources like storage class, pvc etc.

$ ceph mon dump

Now Lets create storage-class named storage-rbd:

---
apiVersion: storage.k8s.io/v1
kind: StorageClass
metadata:
name: storage-rbd
provisioner: ceph.com/rbd
parameters:
monitors: <MONITOR_IP_1>:6789, <MONITOR_IP_2>:6789
adminId: admin
adminSecretName: ceph-secret
adminSecretNamespace: kube-system
pool: kubernetes
userId: admin
userSecretName: ceph-secret
userSecretNamespace: kube-system
imageFormat: "2"
imageFeatures: layering

Save this in storage-class.yml file and run following command:

$ kubectl create -f storage-class.yml 
$ kubctl get sc
List of storage classes

And the last step is to create a simple PVC. Save following in file pvc.yml

---
kind: PersistentVolumeClaim
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
name: myclaim
spec:
accessModes:
- ReadWriteOnce
resources:
requests:
storage: 1Gi
storageClassName: storage-rbd

and run

$ kubectl create -f pvc.yml
List of PVC

Summary

That’s it !! We created the persistent storage for kubernetes from ceph. Use this pvc to create pv and pod whatever you like. Suggestions are most welcomed.

Hope you enjoyed this blog. Happy Ceph-ing!!

Astrophile | Technophile | Opensource enthusiast